After futile pleas to the border states to free slaves
voluntarily, Lincoln in the summer of 1862 decided that
emancipation was a military and political necessity. The
Emancipation Proclamation transformed the war from a
conflict to save the Union to a war to abolish slavery. It
authorized the enlistment of African Americans; 220,000
served during the war, helping to ensure the destruction of
slavery. This was the big political event during the Civil
Political Consequences and Political Actions
During the Civil War
How the Civil War Started. The U.S. Senate is given to
power to "declare war" on another nation. Did it happen
this way when Fort Sumter was fired on?
how the Civil War started here.
war Congress adopted policies that altered American society.
The Homestead Act of 1862
offered free public land to western settlers. Huge land
grants supported construction of a transcontinental
government raised the tariff, imposed new taxes, enacted the
first income tax, and established a system of
federally-chartered banks, a national currency (green-backs).
Banking Acts and Greenback Currency
Civil War Income Tax
grants supported construction of a
The Union lost about 360,000 troops during the Civil War and
the Confederacy about 260,000. This is almost as many
soldiers as have died in all other American wars.
Read the N.Y. Times Article about "a new estimate Raises
Civil War Death Toll.
For 110 years, the numbers stood as gospel: 618,222 men died
in the Civil War, 360,222 from the North and 258,000 from
the South — by far the greatest toll of any war in American
history. But new research shows that the numbers were far
too low. Read the new total and how it was determined.
The Emancipation Proclamation, 1862.
This was an executive order by the President to free the
slaves in the Confederate States. There were political and
practical reasons for this proclamation.
The 13th Amendment, ratified in December 1865, ended
slavery in the United States.
Slavery was over, but life for the free blacks in America
would not be good. Why?
8. What happened after the 13th Amendment?
Reconstruction and Freemen after the War
First Transcontinental Telegraph System was enacted
in 1860, and was operational for use by the country in 1861.
10. How did Lincoln's elections go? Click
here for data about the elections.
16TH PRESIDENT SECOND TERM
President Lincoln would be elected to a second term against
a popular Democrat, George McClellan (former general under
Study how Abraham Lincoln could maintain the leadership to
"cause" all these great political events to occur. The
Civil War was not popular with all people, and when
conscription (the draft) was initiated, many citizens
up-roared and protested. Lincoln and the Union Army
remained on-task and would of course win the war. Just
looking at the figures of killed soldiers on both sides,
this war had more American deaths than any war before or
Take each of the three important political actions
listed above and complete the information table: [Use the
links above to read about each and answer the questions]
When did this occur, and what was did it
does this Action effect us in the 21st Century?
the Civil War death count reported to the public?
How did the constant huge numbers of deaths effect
the politics of the time? What did it take to
over-ride the public's disgust with huge death
Make a comparison of
deaths due to war (killing, disease, and suicides).
What would Americans think now if the number of dead
was proportionate to Civil War years.
Click the N.Y. Times article about Civil War deaths.
what the Homestead Act did. How did this act effect
secondary education, housing for Americans, growth
of the country, and other ways. Read about this
act, and write an essay to describe the act.
Are there still any
opportunities for citizens of America to claim land
to make a farm or home? What was ethnic backgrounds
of Americans that took advantage of the Homestead
Act? Would this act pass in today's political
climate? Why would it or why would it not? Name
some of America's large colleges that were started
from the Homestead Act?
The Homestead Act of 1862
Tariffs, Income Tax, Greenback Currency and National
Banking, and an Income Tax
Civil War Banking Acts
and Greenback Currency
the Morrill Tariff of 1861 was an increased
tariff in the
United States, adopted on March 2, 186. The
Morill Tariff is often said to be the cause of
National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864, and the OCC
were passed. "Greenback" currency was established.
The First Federal Income
Tax Act was in 1861. It started out with a fixed
rate for all, and was changed in 1862.
have the income tax in the present day.
The Morill Tariff of
1861 was replaced by the
Revenue Act of 1913, but the need of a tariff on
foreign imports was still needed
Civil War Banking Acts and Greenback Currency
The greenback (paper
currency-- printed in green on one side was issued
American Civil War.
The Office of the
Comptroller of the
Currency (OCC) was established.
|Read about the
Emancipation Proclamation (an executive order from
President Lincoln). What slaves were freed from the
Proclamation? Where did they live? Were there
other slaves not freed from the Proclamation? Why
did President Lincoln write and present the
Emancipation Proclamation? Was the Proclamation an
abolitionist act? What would happen to the freed
slaves after the war, if the 15th Amendment
(stopping slavery) had not been passed?
the Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order
from President Lincoln, look up Presidential
Executive Orders in Google. Make a list of of three
or four presidents that issued orders, what the
orders were to do, and how these orders were
accepted by the public. Compare President G.W. Bush
with President Baraq Obama, on the number of
executive orders issued, and what they were about.
Choose any executive orders you study, and give your
opinion in an essay, as to whether they were right
The Emancipation Proclamation, 1862
The 13th Amendment Passed
The 13th Amendment
to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery
nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment
for crime whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, or
any place subject to their jurisdiction." Formally
abolishing slavery in the United States, the 13th
Amendment was passed by the Congress on January 31,
1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865
Abraham Lincoln was a master politician. It took
him years to get his sometimes unfriendly congress,
disagreeable cabinet, and the public to support the
big amendment. Lots of questions were riding with
just what to do about all the free slaves that will
inhabit the country. There will be no Fugitive
Slave Law, but even more evil things would exist all
over the nation against the free black Americans.
Go to the 13th Amendment site to find directions to
learn more about the 13th Amendment.
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